Emissions control systems in an auto reduces the crankcase emissions, exhaust emissions and evaporation emissions produced by gas powered automotive engines. Every gas burning car, truck, van, Sport-Utility Vehicle and minivan automobile engine operating today has some type of emissions control system.
Emissions control systems information on this web page is applicable to every car, truck, van, Sport-Utility Vehicle and minivan. Additional emissions control systems information is available by clicking Acura, Audi, BMW, Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Chevy, Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, GMC, Honda, Hyundai, Infiniti, Isuzu, Jeep, KIA, Lexus, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Pontiac, SAAB, Saturn, Suzuki, Toyota, Volkswagen and Volvo to view.
Emissions Control Systems History.
Cars, vans, trucks and minivans made in or imported into the United States after 1960 were required to limit the emissions produced by their gas fueled engines. Automobiles that do not have emission controls pollute the air because they allow chemical compounds to escape from the engine crankcase, from the exhaust, from evaporation of fuel out of the gas tank and from evaporation of fuel out of the carburetor. Beginning emission controls consisted of changes in engine design, engine calibration and add-on devices that either reduced or eliminated the amount of harmful chemicals that escaped from the automobile. Initial emission controls were classified into three categories: 1 crankcase emission controls, 2 evaporation emission controls and 3 exhaust emission controls. Throughout the years emission controls have grown from miles of vacuum hoses feeding emission control sensors, operating emission control actuators, emission control check valves, emission control anti-backfire valves, mass air-flow sensors, ambient temperature control valves, charcoal or carbon canisters, vacuum amplifiers, carburetor choke pull-off valves, and more to the simple computer controlled emission control systems found today on cars, trucks, vans, sport-utility vehicles and minivans.
Crankcase Emissions Control - The PCV Valve History.
The first emission control was the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system, which appeared on domestic cars in the early 1960s. Ventilation of a crankcase is necessary because of the compression blow-by past the piston rings. This blow-by is mostly unburned gasoline. If allow to stay in the crankcase it dilutes the engine oil, increases engine wear, creates engine sludge, and becomes a caustic acid. Before PCV emission systems were installed on any automotive engine the crankcase was vented through a road draft tube. The suction of air flow past the end of this tube drew out the crankcase fumes and fresh air entered through the engine oil breather cap. When the car was moving there was a continuous flow of fresh air through the crankcase, however this was not the case when the car was inching along in congested city traffic or the car was idling at a stop light. The PCV valve emission control device is usually located on the engine valve cover however it has, over the years, been installed somewhere else on top of the engine intake manifold.
Evaporation Emissions Control - The Vapor Canister.
Most evaporation fuel losses originate from the fuel tank. On an uncontrolled (no emission system) car these vapors escaped through the gas tank vent, which may be in several places at the top of the gas tank or in the gas cap itself. There are also some vapor losses through the bowl vent on the carburetor however these losses are minor compared to the vapor losses from the gas tank. Evaporation emission controls are made up of a fuel / vapor separator and hoses which allow the tank and carburetor vapors to go to either the engine crankcase or to a vapor canister. When the automobile engine is running vacuum from the PCV system cleans these vapors out of the crankcase. A hose from the charcoal or carbon vapor canister to the intake manifold or the carburetor base allows engine vacuum to pull fresh air though the canister drawing these trapped vapors, charcoal or carbon cleaned, into the engine where they're burned. Fresh air enters the vapor canister through a filter which keeps the contents of the vapor canister clean. Fuel tank caps have been redesigned as one way valves. Fuel tank caps allow fresh air to be drawn into the fuel tank and prevent vapors from escaping into the atmosphere.
Exhaust Emissions Controls - The EGR Valve.
The Exhaust Gas Recalculation (EGR) valve is used to send some of the exhaust gas back into the cylinders to reduce combustion temperature. Nitrous oxides (nasty pollutants) form when the combustion temperature gets above 2,500 degrees F. This happens, because at such temperatures, the nitrogen in the air mixes with the oxygen to create nitrous oxides. Did you ever have two friends that were fine by themselves but just awful when they got together? Well, our good friend, the sun, is just like that. When it's sunny, the nitrous oxides from the exhaust get together with the hydrocarbons in the air to form our not-so-good friend, smog. That's when the EGR valve comes in handy.
By forcing some of the exhaust gas back through the intake manifold to the cylinders, we can lower the combustion temperature. Lowering the combustion temperature lowers the amount of nitrous oxide produced. Consequently, less of it comes out the tail pipe. There are two types of EGR valves. One operates through the use of a vacuum, and the other operated through the use of pressure. Both types allow the exhaust gas in to lower the combustion temperature when it gets too high.
Auto exhaust emission control systems, automobile exhaust emission control devices and automotive exhaust emissions control assemblies installed on automobiles have increased and decreased thru the years. To assist the auto owner with auto repair of their emission system a partial listing of what make or made up their automobile engine's exhaust emission control system are included on this emissions control page.
Emissions Control Systems Parts of Past and Present.
Manifold Altitude Pressure (MAP) sensor. Air pump, also sometimes called a smog pump. Idle air control valve. Idle air control solenoid. Coolant temperature sensor, coolant temperature vacuum switch, coolant switch. Charcoal canister, carbon canister or vapor canister. Charcoal canister purge solenoid, carbon canister purge solenoid, canister filter, or vapor canister purge solenoid. Air intake valve, air intake switch, or air intake sensor. Barometric pressure sensor. Catalytic converter sometimes called a smog muffler. Air diverter management valve. Exhaust diverter valve. Mass air-flow sensor. Check valve. Throttle position sensor, crankshaft position sensor, or camshaft position sensor. EGR valve, EGR sensor or EGR solenoid. Time delay repay. Transducer, pressure transducer or position transducer. Oxygen sensor. Vacuum delay valve or delay vacuum bypass valve. Anti-backfire valve. Deceleration valve sometimes called a spark valve. Transmission Controlled Spark (TCS) switch. Combined Emission Control (CEC) valve. Ambient temperature switch. Orifice Spark Advance Control (OSAC) valve. Thermal Vacuum Switch (TVS). Distributor Vacuum Advance Modulator (DVAM) valve. Temperature Vacuum Valve (TVV). Ported Vacuum Switch (PVS). Cold Start Spark Advance (CSSA). Spark Advance Vacuum Modulator (SAVM). Electronic Control Assembly (ECA), Electronic Engine Control (EEC) module. Carburetor choke pull off. Carburetor choke pull down. Carburetor electric choke. Temperature controlled choke vacuum break. Idle enrichment valve. Coolant Control Enrichment (CCE) valve. Vacuum amplifier. Altitude compensation valve. Carburetor idle speed-up solenoid. Cold override switch. Early Fuel Evaporation (EFE) valve also called heat riser valve. Liquid / vapor separator. Emissions control gas cap and knock sensor.
Exhaust emission controls, exhaust emission systems and exhaust emission control devices continue today to increase the car, van, truck, sport-utility vehicle, and minivan cost of ownership. This is because auto engine exhaust gasses create 60% of the total automobile air pollutants found in the atmosphere.
Emissions control systems information also pertains to every auto made by AMC, Aston, Austin, Bentley, Checker, Daewoo, Daihatsu, Eagle, Ferrari, Fiat, GEO, Hummer, International, Jaguar, Jensen, Lamborghini, Land Rover, Lincoln, Lotus, Mercedes, Mercury, MG, Oldsmobile, Plymouth, Porsche, PT Cruiser, Rolls, Subaru, and Triumph.
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